The data from each analysis consists of two absorbance readings and the volume of the titration.
The calculations include the following steps:. For this factor is Cell 20 has two windows 23 and 24, and cell 21 has two windows 25 and 26 through which the contents of the tube are visible when the tube is set in the cell. Opposite each window are panels numbered 0 14 as shown, and each panel 2 14 displays a color identical to that represented by the absorbance values, FIG.
The Zero 0 panel on the comparator box 15 is royal blue, corresponding to any untitrated sample e. Panel 2 is the bluest and panel 14 is the reddest hue of violet. The absorbance values in FIG. Thus, if the sample after dilution contains 40 p. It 5 ml. This excess of 1 ml.
This approach to titration was evaluated by trying it with eight persons who were only asked to match known samples to the color panels in the comparator box; the average standard deviation was only Field procedure The formula for computation is given in FIG. Each of the two flasks is iilled with a 50 ml. A small portion 50 mg. If high turbidity is encountered, the 50 m1. The color of the contents in each liask will be royal blue regardless of how much excess of chelate is present.
It should be stressed that an excess of the titrant will have been added, that is, an excess over the amount required to balance the excess chelant C A; and again, we are interested in knowing exactly what the excess chelant is or was. Next, each flask is filled with distilled water to the ml. The color comparator tube is -filled from flask No. The reason for thus comparing the contents of flask No. Next, the tube is emptied and filled from flask No.
This lirst reading dlask No. Thus, in the formula, FIG. In any event, the computation for B using the value of l above tells us what is. MgCl2 titrant is equivalent to 1. It will be seen from the foregoing that I determine excess chelant AC in an aliquot of hard Water, using Calcon as an indicator and a measured amount of MgCl2 as the titrant, the amount of titrant being EF in excess of that required to tie up the excess chelant. The field comparator presents a cell with a transparent opening through'which may be viewed the color of the titrated aliquot sample and matched to one of several bordering panels varied as to color accordingly as the indicator is varied in color in proportion to a Variant excess of the titrant, each panel having a value equated to p.
While the preferred indicator is Calcon for the reasons specified, I recognize that a diligent Search or study may reveal another chemical possessing equivalent attributes and which may therefore be used in place of Calcon. Therefore, it will be understood that modicatons and variations may be effected without departing from the scope of the novel concepts of the present invention. A method according to claim 1, conducted with va field titration comparator kit having a cell for receiving a transparent tube containingv the sample, said cell having a transparent opening through which may be viewed Athe color of the sample in the tube, said cell beingbordered by panels which vary in color accordingly as the indicator is varied in color by an excess of the titrant,'whereby,the sample in the tube may be matched to a panel, and each panel having a value equated to p.
A N O :mwN: m mmmznu wmuuxm Een ou. In the drawing: FIG. The reagents used or prepared in the equivalence study all reagen grade , and others hereinafter referred to, are: 1 RT-l, diethyldithiocarbamate-sodium salt The salt is used as a masking agent directly as it comes from the manufacturer, and is intended to neutralize iron, copper and zinc.
A The absorbance values were plotted against p. The calculations include the following steps: Hypothetical Data-Sample Blank. Chelant Sample. Titration 1. The invention is hereby claimed as follows: 1. A method according to claim 1 in which the indicator is Calcon. USA true USA en. Calcium and magnesium specific hardness method using aluminum chelate exchange reagent.
Method and apparatus for automatic end-point detection in tripolyphosphate sequestration of hardness. Analytical method for determining formaldehyde in electroless copper plating bath. Kit for use in assay method for the determination of lithium with novel substituted crown dyes. Assay method for the determination of lithium with novel substituted crown dyes. USB1 en. Huang et al. Simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine in silicate rocks by a rapid spectrophotometric method. Fogg et al. Sarazin et al.
A rapid and accurate spectroscopic method for alkalinity measurements in sea water samples. Reilley et al. Williams et al. Bosch-Reig et al. Development of the H-point standard-additions method for ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic kinetic analysis of two-component systems. Diehl et al.
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West et al. Betz et al. Conant et al. A study of superacid solutions. A chemical investigation of the hydrogen-ion activity of acetic acid solutions. Barney et al. Dean et al. Currah et al. Gentry et al. Jones et al. The chemical analysis of water from district Kohat is shown in Table 4. Strength of hair was compared using paired t -test [ Table 5 ]. The importance of hairs cannot be denied in an individual's life and extra care is taken in their handling to avoid any damage to them. The use of oils, conditioners, and shampoos is in routine practices. Interaction of hair with water is also very common, for example, during bathing and washing, etc.
This study was conducted to evaluate changes in baseline strength of hair after treating them with deionized water and hard water. It was observed that baseline strength of hair decreased significantly after treating it with hard water as compare to deionized water which is similar to the results in a previous study by Luqman et al. In this recent study, hair was divided into three groups, and baseline tensile strength of hair Group A was compared with tensile strength of hairs Group B treated with deionized water and tensile strength of hair Group C treated with hard water from district Kohat.
A similar study was carried out by Srinivasan et al. The reason perhaps is that Srinivasan collected hair samples from women, and in our study, hairs were taken only from male individuals, pointing toward the role of gender. Besides, the hardness level of hard water used in both Srinivasan Furthermore, the hair samples in our study were exposed for a longer period of time, and the sample size was much larger than either study. Furthermore, the use of deionized water which is more pure form of water in our study rather than distilled water may have played a role in different results.
There was no specific relation or pattern observed when age and strength of hair were compared. Normally, we observe a frequent interaction between water and hair, but the damage is not that evident. It is because the process metal uptake by hair oxidation and thus hair damage oxidative damage is slowed down by the use of different chelants in form of shampoos, hair conditioners, etc.
The chelants lead to the removal of metal ions from water by surrounding them [ 11 ] and thus decrease the chances of interaction between hair and those metal ions. The addition of acids, for example, citric acid into shampoos and conditioners and the also the use of topical application of yogurt and lemon containing lactic acid and ascorbic acids, respectively in some areas helps decrease the action of metal ions on hair.
In our study, we observed that a significant statistical decrease in strength of hair in men is observed after treating them with hard water. However, different results may be observed in females.
The results may also vary with different levels of water hardness and different sample size. The mechanism, of how this happens, is much debatable and needs further comprehensive studies, especially on molecular levels. Our study showed that there is a significant decrease in strength of hair when baseline strength of hair was compared with strength of hair treated with hard water as compared to strength of hair with deionized water. This also gives us an idea that the use of hard water may result in an increase in hair breakage as well.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Int J Trichology v. Int J Trichology. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: kp. This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.
Abstract Background and Aim: Interaction of hair with water is common. Material and Methods: Hardness level of water samples collected from 10 districts of KP, Pakistan was determined, and that with maximum hardness was considered our sample hard water. Results: The mean age of all 70 participants were Conclusion: Hard water decreases strength of hair and thus increases breakage.
Key words: Calcium carbonate, hair, hard water, magnesium sulfate, tensile strength. Open in a separate window. Hard water sample From 10 main districts, of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa KP , Pakistan, tap water samples were collected from 10 different places in each district. Table 2 Average hardness of tap water samples from different districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and their pH values. Hair samples Hair samples were collected from Peshawar, Pakistan, the area with minimum average hardness to see changes in its strength after being exposed to water with more hardness, i.
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Figure 1. Figure 2. Universal testing machine left , hair in clamps of universal testing machine right. Table 3 Age groups with frequency. Table 4 Total hardness level of water sample collected from Kohat. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Male pattern baldness: Current treatments, future prospects. Drug Discov Today. The disruption of soxmediated hair shaft cuticle differentiation causes cyclic alopecia in mice. Effect of topical application of hard water in weakening of hair in men. J Pak Med Assoc.
Effects of hard water on hair. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; Does water hardness have preventive effect on cardiovascular disease?
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Int J Prev Med. Ghanaat M. Types of hair loss and treatment options, including the novel low-level light therapy and its proposed mechanism. South Med J. Tobin DJ. Quadflieg JM.